In recent years, large companies have made important progress in quantum computing and in the implementation of quantum computing projects, which seem destined to revolutionize the world as we know it.

It is a new path for information technology, which will change many paradigms and of which it is therefore important to know the basic principles. Let’s see them together.

So a quantum computer

This branch of computer science is based on the principles of superimposition of quantum matter and entanglement and uses a method of calculation different from the traditional one.

At theoretical level, it would be able to store many more states per unit of information and operate with much more efficient algorithms at numerical level.

This new generation of supercomputers uses the knowledge of quantum mechanics, the area of physics that studies atomic and subatomic particles, to overcome some limitations of classical calculation.

Although quantum computing addresses obvious problems of scalability and inconsistency, it allows multiple simultaneous operations and eliminates the tunnel effect that limits current programming on a nanometric scale.

What is a qubit?

Quantum calculation uses the qubit as a basic information unit instead of the conventional bit. The main feature of this alternative system is that it allows the coherent overlap of one and zero, the binary system figures around which the whole calculation rotates. Bits, on the contrary, can have only one value at a time • one or zero.

This aspect of quantum technology means that a quabit can be both zero and one at the same time and in different proportions. This multiplicity of states allows a quantum computer with only 30 qubits, for example, to perform 10 billion floating point operations per second

The generation and management of qubits is a scientific and engineering challenge. Some companies, such as Ibm, Google and Reject Computing, use superconductive circuits cooled to colder temperatures than deep space. Others, like IonQ, trap single atoms in electromagnetic fields on a silicon chip in very high vacuum chambers. In both cases, the objective is to isolate the qubits in a controlled quantum state.

Qubits have some bizarre quantum properties that imply that a connected group of them can provide much more processing power than the same number of binary bits. One of these properties is known as superimposition and the other is called entanglement.

What is the overlap?

The superimposition principle states that an electron, when immersed in a magnetic field, can have the spin aligned with the magnetic field itself (and in this case it is said that the electron is in a spin-up state), or on the contrary have a

According to the laws of quantum physics, a particle can also be in a superposition state and acts as if it were both in spin-up state and in spin-down state.

In our case, applying these laws to quantum computing, the principle of overlapping establishes that the qubit can simultaneously assume the two states of the…classic bit and be…….and…..at the same time

In addition, quabits can represent numerous possible combinations of 1 and 0 simultaneously. This ability to be simultaneously in multiple states is called overlapping.

To put the quabits in overlap, researchers manipulate them using precision lasers or microwave rays.

Thanks to this phenomenon, a quantum computer with several quabits in overlap can simultaneously analyze a huge number of potential results. The final result of a calculation only emerges once the qubits have been measured, which immediately causes their quantum state to \”collassare” to 1 or 0.

Cos’ is l’entanglement in quantum computing

Researchers can generate qubit pairs that are “entangled” which means that the two members of a couple exist in a single quantum state. The change in the state of one of the quabits will instantly change the state of the other one in a predictable way. This is true even if they are separated by very long distances.

In the entanglement, also called quantum correlation, the particles that interacted in the past still retain a connection between them if they are still in a completely isolated system.

For this reason, knowing the spin of a particle you can also automatically know the spin of the second particle: if the first is in spin-up, the second will be in spin-down, regardless of the distance that divides them.

In quantum computing this allows the transfer of information from one end of the system to the other, whatever the distance.

No one really knows how or why l’entanglement works. He even baffled Einstein, who notoriously described it as a remote spectral action. But it’s the key to quantum computer power.

In a conventional computer, doubling the number of bits doubles its processing power.

But thanks to the entanglement, adding extra qubits to a quantum machine produces an exponential increase in its computational capacity.

Quantum computers use the interwoven quabits in a sort of quantum daisy chain to operate. The ability of machines to accelerate calculations using specially designed quantum algorithms is why there is so much enthusiasm about their potential.

That’s the good news.

The bad news is that quantum machines are much more susceptible to errors than classic computers due to decency.

Quantum computing, quantum decore

The overlapping of different states, forced on a complex system, made of billions and billions of atoms, simply fails to maintain and disappears rapidly in the phenomenon called “decoherence.”

The quantum decore or de-sync of the wave functions describes the phenomenon of the collapse of the wave function as a consequence of the irreversible interaction (in thermodynamic sense) between quantum systems and the external environment.

Decoration is a real physical process that happens everywhere continuously. It occurs whenever a quantum system is no longer isolated from the surrounding macroscopic environment and its wave function is in correlation with the complex state of this environment. Decoration is one of the fastest and most efficient processes in physics.

And it was its efficiency that made its discovery so difficult for so long. The process of decency is still a very active research area and is not yet fully understood in all its aspects.

So the interaction of the quabits with their environment in ways that cause their quantum behavior to decay and eventually disappear is called decore. Their quantum state is extremely fragile.

The slightest vibration or temperature variation That’s why researchers do their best to protect the quberts from the outside world with extreme refrigeration systems and vacuum chambers.

However, despite the efforts made, noise is always the basis of errors within quantum calculation.

Intelligent quantum algorithms can compensate for some of these and even adding more qubit helps.

For this reason, many standard quabits are needed to create a single, highly reliable one, known as qubit

It is easy to understand what huge challenges researchers and the big realities they face in quantum computing are when it comes to increasing the number of bits of their quantum computers.

However, this did not affect the pioneers’ hopes of being the first to demonstrate quantum supremacy.

So is quantum supremacy

Quantum supremacy is spoken of as to the point where a quantum computer can complete a mathematical calculation that is without possibility of denial beyond the scope of even the most powerful supercomputer.

This is a constantly changing boundary: it is still unclear exactly how many qubits will be needed to achieve this goal, also because researchers continue to find new algorithms to increase the performance of classic machines and superscale hardware continues to improve. However, there are many examples of experiments carried out in this respect, even if more for communication purposes than for real efficiency in practical activities.

There is much debate in the research world about how significant it is to achieve this goal.

Rather than waiting for the supremacy to be declared, companies are already starting to experiment with quantum computers made by companies like Ibm, Google, Rigetti and D-Wave, a Canadian company.

Chinese companies like Alibaba also offer access to quantum machines. Some companies buy quantum computers, while others use cloud computing services such as those offered by Aws or Microsoft.

The fields of use of quantum computing

One of the most promising applications of quantum computers is the simulation of the behaviour of matter up to the molecular level. Car manufacturers are using quantum computers to simulate the chemical composition of electric vehicle batteries to find new ways to improve their performance.

And pharmaceutical companies are using them to analyze and compare compounds that could lead to the creation of new drugs.

Quantum computers are potentially very valuable also to address optimization problems, because they can process a large number of potential solutions in an extremely fast way.

Companies engaged in the avionics, for example, start using quantum calculation to evaluate the most efficient flight and descent routes in terms of fuel consumption for aircraft. In addition, quantum computing is expected to make a profound contribution to the development of artificial intelligence.

It will certainly take several years for quantum computing to be really ready to make its contribution.

It is very difficult to predict a precise time frame at this time, but the massive commitment seen in recent times by several heavy weights in the sector makes us hope for an acceleration.

What has been said about quantum computing